The maximum native magnification of your existing lens can usually be found in the lens specifications from the manufacturers website. Once you have that magnification ratio number, you can easily calculate the new magnification with an extension tube, using the following formula:
New magnification = Native lens magnification + (extension amount/focal length)
Example 1: The Canon 50mm f/1.8 STM has a native magnification of 0.21x. If we use a 12mm extension tube on it, our new magnification will be 0.21 + (12/50) = 0.45x
Example 2: Using the same Canon 50mm lens with stacked 12mm and 25mm extension tubes would give us a magnification of 0.21 + ((12+25)/50) = 0.95x
0.95x magnification is very close to the life-sized 1:1 that you would get in a true macro lens!